Walking to Syria

ZABADANI, SYRIA  —

Abu Amer sits among strangers in the courtyard of a farmhouse at the foot of a mountain spanning the Lebanese-Syrian border. It's just after sunset. Young children scamper around a mother and grandmother as they clear plates of food off a plastic sheet spread on the concrete floor. The men smoke and drink tea.

The mood is relaxed, but Abu Amer is getting anxious. He has been away from Syria for six months and tonight he will journey back in on foot under the cover of darkness. The fighting has reached Damascus and he's headed to rejoin his family there. His response to why he left Syria is curt: "circumstances."

A friend of Abu Amer's in the Syrian town of Zabadani, twenty miles northwest of the capital, has helped to organize his return trip through a smuggling route used by the Free Syrian Army to ferry in weapons and supplies from Lebanon. As night falls, a car pulls up with its headlights off. Four men hop out and join the group. They are all Syrian, between 20 and 24 years old, and they crack jokes as they prepare for the trip. Three of them are from a small Syrian town across the border that has a long tradition of aiding smugglers. Its residents pride themselves on their knowledge of the surrounding mountains and their ability to traverse them unnoticed by army soldiers or border guards. The fourth, 21-year-old Ghazwan, is returning home to Zabadani.

Everyone is dressed in dark colors, except for Abu Amer, who wears a white T-shirt that practically glows in the moonlight. "You have something darker?" Mohamed, the 24-year-old lead guide, asks. Abu Amer nods, pulls out a black T-shirt from his backpack, and slips it on.

The group walks back to the car and the driver opens the trunk. Inside are two assault rifles, an AK-47 and a German-made H&K model G3, fitted with a scope. Mohamed's face breaks into a wide grin. "Ya Allah," he says with appreciation. Everyone piles into the car. Two of the men hold assault rifles on their laps. Cellphones are turned off.

The car stops some 200 yards away from a Lebanese army checkpoint. "Hurry, hurry!" says the driver. The group scrambles out and walks quickly to the foot of the mountain, where they begin the ascent. Mohamed leads. Abu Amer follows the group at the back. They climb straight up for ten minutes, then start to cross. The terrain is rugged, filled with loose rock, thorny bushes and steep inclines. They keep a fast pace. When the Lebanese soldiers are out of view they stop for a break. Everyone lights cigarettes.

Ghazwan introduces himself and talks about life in Zabadani, which has been under constant shelling by the Syrian army for months. He recounts being detained by security forces three months ago, casually describing how he was hung from the ceiling by his wrists and repeatedly beaten and electrocuted. After two days he was let go.

The two carrying the assault rifles are 20-year-old Rashad and 22-year-old Hassan. Ghazwan asks if they are fighters with the Free Syrian Army. "We're support," Rashad says.

Abu Amer says he is returning to Damascus to be with his family, though he's ambivalent when the others ask whether he will take up arms against the regime. Like nearly all Syrian men his age, Abu Amer, 25, had done mandatory military service. To change the subject, he asks where the Syrian border is. Mohamed points westward in the direction of the Lebanese capital. "The Syrian border is over there at Beirut," he says, laughing.

They stamp out their cigarettes and continue up the mountain. It's an arduous climb and Mohamed stops the group often for short rests; everyone is pouring with sweat. After about an hour they reach the top. From there, a flat, treeless expanse leads to another stretch of mountainous terrain.

They are entering Syria.

Mohamed stops and gathers everyone around in a huddle; the joking is over and his tone is serious. He whispers for everyone to walk single-file behind him and to tread as lightly as possible. He tells Rashad to take up the rear to make sure no one lags behind.

They walk in silence, betrayed only by the sound of their shoes crunching on the ground. The half-full moon bathes the mountainside in a monochrome of pale silver. They continue for hours, rarely stopping. No cigarettes are lit. Every so often someone loses his footing, sending a stream of loose rock tumbling down and earning a glare of disapproval from Mohamed.

Finally, they reach a dirt and gravel path that winds along the side of the mountain. After a few minutes, the lights of a small town come into view. Mohamed stops to make a call, shielding the glow of his cellphone screen with his hand. There is an army base and several checkpoints on the outskirts of the town. He continues forward, weaving his way across its perimeter, along dirt paths and through fruit orchards, in a giant zig-zag to avoid the unseen soldiers.

Mohamed and Rashad disappear into a fruit orchard and come back with handfuls of apples. They are small and green and sweet. "Those apples saved me," Abu Amer says after eating three. He is visibly exhausted.

A little more than five hours after they left, they finally reach their destination for the night. It's 2:30 in the morning.

A Free Syrian Army soldier in a black jacket and camouflage pants, with a pistol strapped to his belt, greets them warmly. Shortly afterwards, a pickup truck with its lights off pulls up along a nearby dirt road. The group clambers into the back and is driven to a small house in town.

Everyone is ushered into a green-carpeted room with cushions on the floor. (Gatherings with tables and chairs are a rare phenomenon in the Syrian countryside.) A jug of water is passed around and food is spread out on a plastic sheet: sliced tomatoes, white cheese, French fries, olives, hummus and a hot pan of scrambled eggs. No utensils; instead, everyone is handed a sheet of the large, circular flat bread that is a staple of every meal in Syria.

Tags: arab spring, bashar al-assad, free syrian army, sharif abdel kouddous, syria, syrian revolution

    • Sharif Abdel Kouddous
    • Sharif Abdel Kouddous is an independent journalist based in Cairo. For eight years he served as a senior producer, co-host, and correspondent for Democracy Now! and he remains a frequent contributor to the program. Originally from Cairo, he returned to Egypt in 2011 to cover the Egyptian revolution. He has written for The Natio...

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